Week 2- Day 1

20140707-155251-57171543.jpgBioinformatics with Graham-Genetic research seems to go hand in hand with bioinformatics. A great deal of energy and time goes into the extraction, purification and amplification of DNA, then what? You produce this beautiful DNA barcode but unless you sequence the DNA and use the information, you are limited in what you can say about your DNA.

The bat lab uses DNA (mitochondrial DNA) for identification of species (only 1 use of many)
You extracted DNA from a number of bats of unknown species, you have isolated cytochrome b, a gene which used in linking closely related members. PCR amplified a particular sequence in the gene for which primers were specifically selected. After electrophoresis satisfied you that PCR worked you then quantify the amount of DNA, use the Nano Drop.

The samples if they contain enough DNA, are then sent to an outside sequencing company which come up with A,T,G,C’s . This is is where bioinformatics comes in. Databases such as BLAST and NCBI contain thousands of fully sequenced genes, you can enter your sequence and compare it with those already inputted and it will match up to all homologes (the same gene in different species) and this is used for further analysis.
These data bases match per nucleotide and if your sequence matches up perfectly with that of one in the database it will be very clear.

 

BLAST-sequence analysis

BLAST-sequence analysis

Perfect match with 100% of nucleotides

Perfect match with 100% of nucleotides

 

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